JB

Melotte 15

Melotte 15 LRGB Version

Melotte 15 LRGB Version

Distance: 7,500 Light Years
Magnitude: 10
Size: 15 x 8 Arc-minutes
Age: Approx. 3 Million Years
Telescope: Takahashi TOA-130
Camera: QSI 683
Mount: AP 1100
Exposures: L 25×600 Bin 1, RGB 20×300 Bin 2

Melotte 15 is an open cluster at the center of the Heart Nebula and is located in the constellation Cassiopeia. It is very young at 1.5-3 million years and contains several very young and very bright Type O stars. This young cluster is responsible for hollowing out the central area of the Heart Nebula with large amounts of ultraviolet radiation. The cluster is also responsible for shaping the dense dust cloud that forms the branch like formation found in the center of my image.

The Melotte catalog is named after Philibert Jacques Melotte. He cataloged 245 open and globular clusters in 1915. These clusters are less known than the Messier clusters but most of them are visible with amateur equipment.

Narrowband Exposures: SII 21×900, Ha 20×900, OIII 25×900

SHO Version:

Melotte 15 SHO Version

Melotte 15 SHO Version

HOO Version:

Melotte 15 HOO Version

Melotte 15 HOO Version

HaRGB Version:

Melotte 15 HaRGB Version

Melotte 15 HaRGB Version

The Cave Nebula

2014 Version:

Cave Nebula, SH2-155

The Cave Nebula LRGB

Distance: 2,400 Light Years Telescope: Takahashi TOA-130
Magnitude: 7.7 Camera: QSI 683
Size: 45’x50’ Arc-minutes Mount: AP 1100
Age: Not Known Exposures: L 20×600 Bin 1 RGB 20×300 Bin 2

Cave Nebula, SH2-155

The Cave Nebula SHO Version

Distance: 2,400 Light Years Telescope: Takahashi TOA-130
Magnitude: 7.7 Camera: QSI 683
Size: 45’x50’ Arc-minutes Mount: AP 1100
Age: Not Known Exposures: SII 25×900 Ha 25×900, OIII 25×900

 

2013 Version:

Cave Nebula, SH2-155, Caldwell 9

The Cave Nebula

 

Distance: 2,400 Light Years                        Telescope: Televue NP101

Magnitude:  7.7                                              Camera: QSI 683

Size:  45’x50’ Arc-minutes                         Mount: AP 900

Age: Not Known                                            Exposures: SII 12×1200 Ha 19×1200, OIII 11×1200

The Cave Nebula, also known as SH2-155 or Caldwell 9, is an emission nebula that also contains a large dark nebula and smaller reflection nebula. It is located in the constellation of Cepheus and is about 2,400 light years away. The dark nebula also known as LBN 529 forms the cave part of the nebula and its shape stands out from the contrasting emission nebula on the curved part of the cave. The source of illumination is a group of young stars called the Cepheus OB3 Association. These stars are very young at an estimated age of 100,000 years. LBN 527 is just to the right of the cave area.

Also in the field of view is LBN 524. It is a dark nebula that appears to the  lower right of the Cave Nebula. Also in this same area are dark nebula LDN 1215 and LDN 1216. On the other side of the Cave is dark nebula  LDN 1218.

[Wikipedia, The Calwell Objects by Stephen James O’Meara, The SkyX]

Ha Version 19×1200:

Cave Nebula, SH2-155, Caldwell 9

The Cave Nebula Ha

NGC 7822

 

NGC 7822, SH2-171, Berkeley 59, LBN 584, LBN 588

NGC 7822 LSHO Version

Distance: 3,300 Light Years
Magnitude: Unknown
Size: 180 Arc-minutes
Age: Approx. 2 million years
Telescope: Takahashi TOA-130
Camera: QSI 683
Mount: AP 1100
Exposures: L 18×600 Bin 1, SII 24×900, Ha 30×900, OIII 16×900

NGC 7822 is a large emission nebula in the constellation Cepheus. It covers about 3 degrees of sky but my image covers just the central part of the nebula. NGC 7822 also contains many different types of objects such as an open star cluster, dark dust lanes, elephant trunk structures, and Bok globules.

The open star cluster is named Berkeley 59 and contains several type O and B stars. These types of stars are very young, large, and hot. Forty two variable stars were also recently cataloged in Berkeley 59 and its surrounding area. Berkeley 59 is about 10 arc-minutes in size and the stars within are 1-5 million years old.

The dark lanes seen in my image are listed in Lynd’s Dark Nebula catalog as LDN 1267, LDN 1268, LDN 1269, LDN 1270, LDN 1271, and LDN 1275. LDN 1267 is about 9 arc-minutes in size. LDN 1268 is about 27 arc-minutes in size. LDN 1269 is about 10 arc-minutes in size. LDN 1270 is about 6 arc-minutes in size. LDN 1271 is about 6 arc-minutes in size. LDN 1275 is about 10 arc-minutes in size.

Elephant trunk structures are areas of colder gas and dust that are cylindrically shaped as a result of the large amounts of ultraviolet radiation emitted from the open star cluster. All of the elephant trunk structures in my image point to the central star cluster Berkeley 59. One elephant trunk structure known as the “Dancing Queen” is actually rotating upon its axes. The “Dancing Queen” trunk is the smaller object to the right of the bigger trunk just below and right of the image center. Elephant trunk structures are also known to be active star forming regions but it often takes IR imaging to see through the dense gas and dust. There are also smaller areas of dense gas and dust in NGC 7822 known as globules. These are smaller concentrations of dust and gas usually spherical or tear dropped in shape.

Below is a LRGB version on NGC 7822 captured from my home in a Bortle 6 zone:

Telescope: Takahashi TOA-130
Camera: QSI 683
Mount: AP 1100
Exposures: L 18×600 Bin 1, RGB 20×300 Bin 2

NGC 7822, SH2-171, Berkeley 59, LBN 584, LBN 588

NGC 7822 LRGB Version

Telescope: Takahashi TOA-130
Camera: QSI 683
Mount: AP 1100
Exposures: L 18×600 Bin 1, RGB 20×300 Bin 2

NGC 7635 The Bubble Nebula

NGC 7635, Bubble Nebula, Caldwell 11

NGC 7635 The Bubble Nebula

Distance: 7,100 Light Years
Magnitude: 10
Size: 15 x 8 Arc-minutes
Age: Approx. 300,000 years
Telescope: Takahashi TOA-130
Camera: QSI 683
Mount: AP 1100
Exposures: L 15×600 Bin 1, RGB 15×300 Bin 2

NGC 7635, the Bubble nebula, is an emission nebula in the constellation Cassiopeia. The Bubble nebula is set in a nebulous gas and dust cloud which provides a smooth backdrop for the sharply defined Bubble. The Bubble gets it shape from a massive Wolf-Rayet star named SAO 20575. A Wolf-Rayet star is a very large, hot, and young star that is rapidly shedding outer layers. These stars are larger than 20 solar masses and their temperatures range from 20,000K to over 50,000K. Wolf-Rayet stars eject large amounts of their mass and during this process the expelled layers take various shapes varying from circular to oval. This star is emitting a large amount of ultraviolet radiation travelling at 4 million miles per hour which shapes the ejected gas from the inside while the surrounding exterior gas cloud restricts the expansion giving a sharply defined edge which forms a bubble. SAO 20575 is the brighter star inside of the bubble to the upper left of center. SAO 20575 is 44 times larger than the sun and is a magnitude 8.71 star. It is moving away from the area and this is why it is not in the center of the bubble.

The top picture was captured with a 1000mm FL telescope and shows the Bubble nebula and the surrounding gas cloud. This image was taken from my house in a Bortle 6 zone.

[ConstellationGuide.com]

NGC 281 The Pacman Nebula

NGC 281, Pacman Nebula, IC 1590,

NGC 281 Pacman Nebula SHO Version

Distance: 9,500 Light Years
Magnitude: 8.5
Size: 35 Arc-minutes
Age: Approx. 4 million years
Telescope: Takahashi TOA-130
Camera: QSI 683
Mount: AP 1100
Exposures: L 20×600 Bin 1, SII 20×900, Ha 20×900, OIII 20×900

NGC 281, the Pacman nebula, is an open star cluster plus emission nebula in the constellation Cassiopeia. NGC 281 is a desirable object for study because it sits above the galactic plane and this eliminates a lot of interference from galactic dust. It also contains many high mass stars whose ultraviolet radiation is shaping the denser gaseous areas and also helping to provide initiating forces to star formation. The gas and dust that give the Pacman nebula it shape are illuminated by several high mass stars in the open cluster IC 1590. Although IC 1590 contains several hundred stars, it is the massive Type O stars that help shape the dark nebula that forms the mouth of the Pacman feature. Additionally, the ultraviolet radiation from the cluster helps shape the perimeter trunk shaped dust clouds on the left side of my image. These areas are thought to be star forming regions. Also present in the region are several Bok globules in the central area of the nebula. Bok globules are dense areas of dust and gas that are thought to be active star forming regions. It was only recently that near IR images found star formation inside some of these globules. This was previously impossible to determine using visual means because the regions were too dense for optical study.

NGC 281, Pacman Nebula, IC 1590

NGC 281 Pacman Nebula LRGB Version

Telescope: Takahashi TOA-130
Camera: QSI 683
Mount: AP 1100
Exposures: L 20×600 Bin 1 RGB 20×300 Bin 2

NGC 281, Pacman Nebula, IC 1590

NGC 281 Pacman Nebula LRHaGB Version

Telescope: Takahashi TOA-130
Camera: QSI 683
Mount: AP 1100
Exposures: L 20×600 Bin 1 RGB 20×300 Bin 2 Ha 20×900 Bin 1

NGC 7380 The Wizard Nebula

NGC 7380, Wizard Nebula, SH2-142

NGC 7380 L+SHO

Distance: 7,200 Light Years
Magnitude: 7.2
Size: 25 Arc-minutes
Age: Approx. 4 million years
Telescope: Takahashi TOA-130
Camera: QSI 683
Mount: AP 1100
Exposures: L 20×600 Bin 1, SII 25×900, Ha 25×900, OIII 25×900

NGC 7380, The Wizard Nebula, is an open cluster surrounded by the emission nebula from which it formed. NGC 7380 is in the constellation Cepheus and contains an eclipsing binary star known as HD 215835. HD 215835 is thought to be the primary illumination source of the nebula and is dead center in my image. It is rather unimposing and doesn’t appear bright enough to be a source star. The cluster and surrounding nebula is part of the much larger Cep OB1 Association located in the Perseus arm of the galaxy. The cluster is not that large at 3-5 arc minutes and is set against a deep star field behind large amounts of dust. This complicates distance calculations and thus the variety of distances found for this object.

[A KINEMATIC AND PHOTOMETRIC STUDY OF THE GALACTIC YOUNG STAR CLUSTER NGC 7380, 2011]

NGC 7380, Wizard Nebula, SH2-142

NGC 7380 LRGB

Telescope: Takahashi TOA-130
Camera: QSI 683
Mount: AP 1100
Exposures: L 20×600 Bin 1, RGB 20×300 Bin 2

IC 1396A The Elephant Trunk Nebula

IC 1396, Elephant Trunk Nebula

IC 1396A The Elephant Trunk Nebula L+SHO Version

Distance: 2,400 Light Years
Magnitude: 11.5
Size: 170 Arc-minutes
Age: Approx. 1 million years
Telescope: Takahashi TOA-130
Camera: QSI 683
Mount: AP 1100
Exposures: L 20×600 Bin 1, SII 20×900, Ha 20×900, OIII 20×900

The Elephant Trunk nebula, also known as IC 1396 is found in the constellation Cepheus and is about 2,400 light years away. IC 1396 is one of the larger emission nebula taking up about 3 degrees of sky and containing several star forming regions. The most prominent is IC 1396A which is the part that resembles an elephant trunk. IC 1396A is a dense dark cloud of dust that is illuminated by a very bright nearby star that also illuminates the entire nebula. The bright star is HD 206267 and it is a massive Type O star. The radiation and winds from this star are thought to be the force behind the compression of gas and dust creating the star forming regions. Also contributing to illumination of this area is the open star cluster Trumpler 37 which is seen in the foreground of my image. The glowing edges surrounding parts of the dark globules are formed by the excited gas in the Ha region. This presents the bright backdrop for the globule. In the tip of the Elephant Nebula is a circular globule of dust that is open in the middle. Two stars are found here and they are newly formed stars that have cleared a section of the dust cloud as a process of their formation.

IC 1396, Elephant Trunk Nebula

IC 1396A The Elephant Trunk Nebula LRGB

Telescope: Takahashi TOA-130
Camera: QSI 683
Mount: AP 1100
Exposures: L 20×600 Bin 1, RGB 20×300 Bin 2

IC 1396, Elephant Trunk Nebula

IC 1396A The Elephant Trunk Nebula SHO Version

Telescope: Televue NP101
Camera: QSI 683
Mount: AP 900
Exposures: SII 19×1200, Ha 22×1200, OIII 16×1200

 

VdB 152

VdB 152, Barnard 175

VdB 152

Distance: 1,400 Light Years
Magnitude: 8.8
Size: 5×7 Arc-minutes
Age: Unknown
Telescope: Takahashi TOA-130
Camera: QSI 683
Mount: AP 900
Exposures: L 19×600 Bin 1, RGB 17×300 Bin 2

VdB 152 is a reflection nebula in the constellation Cepheus. It is about 1,400 light years away and is a dim object set in a field of dust known as the Cepheus Flare. Surrounding stars in this area are also discolored as a result of all this dust. BD+69 1231 is the source star that illuminates the reflection nebula and can be seen in the cavity of the nebula. Embedded in this nebula is HH 450, a Herbig-Haro object. Herbig-Haro objects are supersonic outflows from YSO’s that collide with interstellar medium to create compressed lines of material. These show best in images that contain Ha and SII data. It is barely visible in my image but can be seen as a reddish blob to the left of the source illumination star at the dark/reflection nebula boundary. HH 450 is only 33” in length and is only resolved in large telescopes.

Barnard 175 is the cometary-shaped dark dust cloud that tails away from the nebula and is listed as a Bok Globule. A Bok globule is a region of dark cool dust and gas. The densest part of Barnard 175 is approximately 5’ x 7’ in size but the tail extends another 30’. The entire dust complex of Barnard 175 is moving at a different speed than the illuminating source of VdB 152. It was discovered that these two objects are merely passing each other at a speed of 11.7 kms.

The thin red filaments beginning in the upper-left corner of my image and ending at the reflection nebula are the remnants of a supernova explosion. It is cataloged as SNR G110.3 +11.3 and is brightest at the area that intersects VdB 152. This indicates some interaction between the two objects and that their distances from Earth are about the same.

[NOAO, A Search for Herbig-Haro Objects in NGC 7023 and Barnard 175, When Star Birth Meets Star Death: A Shocking Encounter]

 

IC 5146 The Cocoon Nebula

IC 5146, Cocoon Nebula, Caldwell 19, SH2-125

IC 5146 The Cocoon Nebula

Distance: 3,300 Light Years
Magnitude: 7.2
Size: 12 Arc-minutes
Age: Approx. 1 million years
Telescope: Takahashi TOA-130
Camera: QSI 683
Mount: AP 900
Exposures: L 41×600 Bin 1, RGB 29×300 Bin 2, Ha 37×600 Bin 1

IC 5146, better known as the Cocoon Nebula, is an open star cluster surrounded by a combination of emission and reflection nebula in the constellation Cygnus. The source of illumination for this nebula is a young type BO star listed as GSC 3608:1446 and is at the center of the nebula. Most sources state an age of 100,000 years for this star. There are several hundred young stars in this cluster that are about 1,000,000 years old. The difference in age would indicate different stages of star development continuing to the present day.

The red regions are emission nebula illuminated primarily by the central star. The bluish regions are reflection nebula caused by visible light reflecting off dust in the area. The darker regions around the nebula and extending away from the nebula are separate dark nebula named Barnard 168. Barnard 168 is the home to many star forming regions. Many of these regions are in various states of development and as of 2008 there were approximately 200 YSO (Young Stellar Objects) candidates. This count was taken from a paper called “The Spitzer Survey of Interstellar Clouds in the Gould Belt. I. IC 5146 Observed with IRAC and MIPS”.

As a side note, this image was taken from my house in an orange zone.

[Cseligman.com]

Below is the Luminance Channel only:

IC 5146, Cocoon Nebula, SH2-125, Caldwell 19, Barnard 168

IC 5146 Cocoon Nebula Luminance Channel

NGC 6820

NGC 6820, NGC 6823
NGC 6820

Distance: 6,000 Light Years
Magnitude: 6.0
Size: 40 Arc-minutes
Age: Approx. 2 Million Years
Telescope: Takahashi TOA-130
Camera: QSI 683
Mount: AP 900
Exposures: L 16×900 Bin 1, RGB 16×450 Bin 2

NGC 6820 is an emission nebula in the constellation Vulpecula. The most noticeable feature of this nebula is the large elephant trunk structure just below and right of the image center. This large structure gets its shape from the ultraviolet energy emitted from the young star cluster NGC 6823 at the center of my image. The outer regions of this nebula contain many small elephant trunk structures where active star formation is occurring. These stars are very young at 200,000 to 500,000 years which indicates star formation has been triggered after the main star cluster NGC 6823 was formed. This may be due to one of the earlier Type O stars going supernova and the resulting shock wave exciting gas and dust in the outer region of the nebula. There is a small planetary nebula designated as PLN-59.01 to the bottom and right of the image center just below the main elephant trunk structure.

The open star cluster at the center of my image is NGC 6823 and is young at 2 million years. NGC 6823 is also considered the center of the Vulpecula OB1 Association and consists of Type O and B stars which are very young and very hot stars. The high ultraviolet energy from the cluster illuminates the surrounding gas and dust and also shapes the elephant trunk structures. There also Bok globules in the area. These globules are smaller dark clouds of dense gas and dust that are also potential star formation areas. These globules contain hydrogen, helium, carbon, plus silicate and are often responsible for formation of double and multiple star systems. Bart Bok, who first studied these globules in 1940, stated they act like “insect cocoons” as transformational vehicles. He suspected these globules were undergoing gravitational collapse but this was impossible to verify with technology at the time as it was impossible to see inside the dense cloud using images from the visible wavelength. His ideas were later confirmed in 1990 with the use of near infrared images to verify star formation inside.

Below is the luminance image consisting of 16×900 second exposures:

NGC 6820, NGC 6823
NGC 6820