Nebula

Messier 78

M78, NGC 2068, Messier 78

Messier 78

Distance: 1,600 Light Years
Magnitude: 8.3
Size: 8 x 6 Arc-minutes
Age: Approx. 1-3 Million Years
Telescope: Takahashi TOA-130
Camera: QSI 683
Mount: AP 1100
Exposures: L 18×600 Bin 1, RGB 15×300 Bin 2

Messier 78 is a reflection nebula in the constellation Orion. It is the larger of the two reflection nebula in my image. The smaller reflection nebula above M78 is NGC 2071. There is a lot of dust in this region that hides the young hot stars that are forming in this area. Both Messier 78 and NGC 2071 are the result of these young stars blasting away the surrounding gas and dust creating a vast void in the surrounding dust. Eventually these two reflection nebula will join as one larger nebula as the surrounding dust is ejected by new star formation. There are approximately 192 newly discovered stars and 45 T Tauri stars in Messier 78. T Tauri stars are proto stars that have not started the fusion process.

There are 21 Herbig-Haro objects in this region and several are seen in my image. The HH objects are narrow jets of ejected gas from newly formed stars that collide with surrounding gas and dust. They appear as a reddish jet set against the dark dusty background. There is also an unusual nebula that has appeared in recent photographs that was not present before. McNeil’s Nebula was recently discovered and appears and disappears at times. It is visible in my image as a fan shaped object below M78 in the top portion of the dust cloud just to the right of two side by side stars.

This image was captured at a fairly dark site in the high desert but there was a constant wind of 10mph with gusts up to 25mph. I was there for two nights but only used about one nights worth of images. There were a lot of images with bloated and/or slightly elongated stars that I had to toss.

NGC 7129

NGC 7129,IC 5132,IC 5133,LDN 1183

NGC 7129

Distance: 3,300 Light Years
Magnitude: 11.5
Size: 7×7 Arc-minutes
Age: Approx. 1 million years
Telescope: Takahashi TOA-130
Camera: QSI 683
Mount: AP 1100
Exposures: L 19×600 Bin 1, RGB 21×300 Bin 2

NGC 7129 is a reflection nebula in the constellation Cepheus. The entire nebula is set amongst a large dusty region of space with active star formation. NGC 7129 also contains several Herbig-Haro objects and molecular outflows. These HH objects are barely visible in my image with one of them seen at the top left of the reflection nebula and three more at the lower right. The largest of the three is the crescent shaped object named Herbig-Haro 103. The star cluster in the center of the image is responsible for illuminating the surrounding dust that comprises the reflection nebula. Several stars in this cluster have circumstellar disks orbiting them. These are planets in the making! IC 5132 and IC 5133 are the smaller bright nebula just above NGC 7129. LDN 1183 is the dusty area surrounding the reflection nebula. Open star cluster NGC 7142 is partially seen at the bottom left.

I decided to try this object from my home in a Bortle 6 zone. I really didn’t know what to expect since this was a reflection nebula set inside of a dark dusty nebula. I was pleasantly surprised at the results even though the dark areas don’t really “pop” from the black sky as they would from a dark site.

NGC 896

NGC 896, IC1795, IC 1805

NGC 896 LRGB Version

Distance: 7,500 Light Years
Magnitude: 10
Size: 27 x 13 Arc-minutes
Age: Approx. 3-5 Million Years
Telescope: Takahashi TOA-130
Camera: QSI 683
Mount: AP 1100
Exposures: L 25×600 Bin 1, RGB 20×300 Bin 2

NGC 896 is an emission nebula in the constellation Cassiopeia. It is also cataloged as IC 1795. This nebula is commonly associated with IC 1805, the Heart Nebula, but was discovered before. It appears as a bright clot of nebulosity in an eyepiece but with a camera the details quickly appear. The nebula is surrounded by several dust lanes that conceal parts of the nebula and part of the star forming regions. A study from 2011 using Spitzer and Chandra data mentions 269 new cluster members in NGC896. This discovery found these new stars hidden behind the dusty areas of this region.

Narrowband Exposures: SII 19×900, Ha 30×900, OIII 18×900

SHO Version:

NGC 896,IC 1795,IC 1805

NGC 896 SHO Version

HOO Version:

NGC 896,IC 1795,IC 1805

NGC 896 HOO Version

IC 1848 Closeup

Sh2-199

IC1848 SHO Version

Distance: 6,500 Light Years
Magnitude: 6.5
Size: 30 x 24 Arc-minutes FOV
Age: Approx. 1 Million Years
Telescope: Takahashi TOA-130
Camera: QSI 683
Mount: AP 1100
Exposures: SII 20×900, Ha 27×900, OIII 25×900

IC 1848 is an emission nebula in the constellation Cassiopeia and is located in the Perseus arm of our galaxy. The common name is the Soul Nebula. There are several areas of dense and dark dusty areas in my image. These areas are shaped by the ultraviolet radiation from nearby star clusters. Eventually the dark structures will be blown away either by new star formation in the pillars or nearby ultraviolet radiation from the nearby clusters. For now they make a stunning image with a backdrop of colorful HII gas.

HOO Version:

Sh2-199

IC 1848 HOO Version

HaRGB Version:

Sh2-199

IC 1848 HaRGB Version

Melotte 15

Melotte 15 LRGB Version

Melotte 15 LRGB Version

Distance: 7,500 Light Years
Magnitude: 10
Size: 15 x 8 Arc-minutes
Age: Approx. 3 Million Years
Telescope: Takahashi TOA-130
Camera: QSI 683
Mount: AP 1100
Exposures: L 25×600 Bin 1, RGB 20×300 Bin 2

Melotte 15 is an open cluster at the center of the Heart Nebula and is located in the constellation Cassiopeia. It is very young at 1.5-3 million years and contains several very young and very bright Type O stars. This young cluster is responsible for hollowing out the central area of the Heart Nebula with large amounts of ultraviolet radiation. The cluster is also responsible for shaping the dense dust cloud that forms the branch like formation found in the center of my image.

The Melotte catalog is named after Philibert Jacques Melotte. He cataloged 245 open and globular clusters in 1915. These clusters are less known than the Messier clusters but most of them are visible with amateur equipment.

Narrowband Exposures: SII 21×900, Ha 20×900, OIII 25×900

SHO Version:

Melotte 15 SHO Version

Melotte 15 SHO Version

HOO Version:

Melotte 15 HOO Version

Melotte 15 HOO Version

HaRGB Version:

Melotte 15 HaRGB Version

Melotte 15 HaRGB Version

The Cave Nebula

2014 Version:

Cave Nebula, SH2-155

The Cave Nebula LRGB

Distance: 2,400 Light Years Telescope: Takahashi TOA-130
Magnitude: 7.7 Camera: QSI 683
Size: 45’x50’ Arc-minutes Mount: AP 1100
Age: Not Known Exposures: L 20×600 Bin 1 RGB 20×300 Bin 2

Cave Nebula, SH2-155

The Cave Nebula SHO Version

Distance: 2,400 Light Years Telescope: Takahashi TOA-130
Magnitude: 7.7 Camera: QSI 683
Size: 45’x50’ Arc-minutes Mount: AP 1100
Age: Not Known Exposures: SII 25×900 Ha 25×900, OIII 25×900

 

2013 Version:

Cave Nebula, SH2-155, Caldwell 9

The Cave Nebula

 

Distance: 2,400 Light Years                        Telescope: Televue NP101

Magnitude:  7.7                                              Camera: QSI 683

Size:  45’x50’ Arc-minutes                         Mount: AP 900

Age: Not Known                                            Exposures: SII 12×1200 Ha 19×1200, OIII 11×1200

The Cave Nebula, also known as SH2-155 or Caldwell 9, is an emission nebula that also contains a large dark nebula and smaller reflection nebula. It is located in the constellation of Cepheus and is about 2,400 light years away. The dark nebula also known as LBN 529 forms the cave part of the nebula and its shape stands out from the contrasting emission nebula on the curved part of the cave. The source of illumination is a group of young stars called the Cepheus OB3 Association. These stars are very young at an estimated age of 100,000 years. LBN 527 is just to the right of the cave area.

Also in the field of view is LBN 524. It is a dark nebula that appears to the  lower right of the Cave Nebula. Also in this same area are dark nebula LDN 1215 and LDN 1216. On the other side of the Cave is dark nebula  LDN 1218.

[Wikipedia, The Calwell Objects by Stephen James O’Meara, The SkyX]

Ha Version 19×1200:

Cave Nebula, SH2-155, Caldwell 9

The Cave Nebula Ha

NGC 7822

 

NGC 7822, SH2-171, Berkeley 59, LBN 584, LBN 588

NGC 7822 LSHO Version

Distance: 3,300 Light Years
Magnitude: Unknown
Size: 180 Arc-minutes
Age: Approx. 2 million years
Telescope: Takahashi TOA-130
Camera: QSI 683
Mount: AP 1100
Exposures: L 18×600 Bin 1, SII 24×900, Ha 30×900, OIII 16×900

NGC 7822 is a large emission nebula in the constellation Cepheus. It covers about 3 degrees of sky but my image covers just the central part of the nebula. NGC 7822 also contains many different types of objects such as an open star cluster, dark dust lanes, elephant trunk structures, and Bok globules.

The open star cluster is named Berkeley 59 and contains several type O and B stars. These types of stars are very young, large, and hot. Forty two variable stars were also recently cataloged in Berkeley 59 and its surrounding area. Berkeley 59 is about 10 arc-minutes in size and the stars within are 1-5 million years old.

The dark lanes seen in my image are listed in Lynd’s Dark Nebula catalog as LDN 1267, LDN 1268, LDN 1269, LDN 1270, LDN 1271, and LDN 1275. LDN 1267 is about 9 arc-minutes in size. LDN 1268 is about 27 arc-minutes in size. LDN 1269 is about 10 arc-minutes in size. LDN 1270 is about 6 arc-minutes in size. LDN 1271 is about 6 arc-minutes in size. LDN 1275 is about 10 arc-minutes in size.

Elephant trunk structures are areas of colder gas and dust that are cylindrically shaped as a result of the large amounts of ultraviolet radiation emitted from the open star cluster. All of the elephant trunk structures in my image point to the central star cluster Berkeley 59. One elephant trunk structure known as the “Dancing Queen” is actually rotating upon its axes. The “Dancing Queen” trunk is the smaller object to the right of the bigger trunk just below and right of the image center. Elephant trunk structures are also known to be active star forming regions but it often takes IR imaging to see through the dense gas and dust. There are also smaller areas of dense gas and dust in NGC 7822 known as globules. These are smaller concentrations of dust and gas usually spherical or tear dropped in shape.

Below is a LRGB version on NGC 7822 captured from my home in a Bortle 6 zone:

Telescope: Takahashi TOA-130
Camera: QSI 683
Mount: AP 1100
Exposures: L 18×600 Bin 1, RGB 20×300 Bin 2

NGC 7822, SH2-171, Berkeley 59, LBN 584, LBN 588

NGC 7822 LRGB Version

Telescope: Takahashi TOA-130
Camera: QSI 683
Mount: AP 1100
Exposures: L 18×600 Bin 1, RGB 20×300 Bin 2

NGC 7635 The Bubble Nebula

NGC 7635, Bubble Nebula, Caldwell 11

NGC 7635 The Bubble Nebula

Distance: 7,100 Light Years
Magnitude: 10
Size: 15 x 8 Arc-minutes
Age: Approx. 300,000 years
Telescope: Takahashi TOA-130
Camera: QSI 683
Mount: AP 1100
Exposures: L 15×600 Bin 1, RGB 15×300 Bin 2

NGC 7635, the Bubble nebula, is an emission nebula in the constellation Cassiopeia. The Bubble nebula is set in a nebulous gas and dust cloud which provides a smooth backdrop for the sharply defined Bubble. The Bubble gets it shape from a massive Wolf-Rayet star named SAO 20575. A Wolf-Rayet star is a very large, hot, and young star that is rapidly shedding outer layers. These stars are larger than 20 solar masses and their temperatures range from 20,000K to over 50,000K. Wolf-Rayet stars eject large amounts of their mass and during this process the expelled layers take various shapes varying from circular to oval. This star is emitting a large amount of ultraviolet radiation travelling at 4 million miles per hour which shapes the ejected gas from the inside while the surrounding exterior gas cloud restricts the expansion giving a sharply defined edge which forms a bubble. SAO 20575 is the brighter star inside of the bubble to the upper left of center. SAO 20575 is 44 times larger than the sun and is a magnitude 8.71 star. It is moving away from the area and this is why it is not in the center of the bubble.

The top picture was captured with a 1000mm FL telescope and shows the Bubble nebula and the surrounding gas cloud. This image was taken from my house in a Bortle 6 zone.

[ConstellationGuide.com]

NGC 281 The Pacman Nebula

NGC 281, Pacman Nebula, IC 1590,

NGC 281 Pacman Nebula SHO Version

Distance: 9,500 Light Years
Magnitude: 8.5
Size: 35 Arc-minutes
Age: Approx. 4 million years
Telescope: Takahashi TOA-130
Camera: QSI 683
Mount: AP 1100
Exposures: L 20×600 Bin 1, SII 20×900, Ha 20×900, OIII 20×900

NGC 281, the Pacman nebula, is an open star cluster plus emission nebula in the constellation Cassiopeia. NGC 281 is a desirable object for study because it sits above the galactic plane and this eliminates a lot of interference from galactic dust. It also contains many high mass stars whose ultraviolet radiation is shaping the denser gaseous areas and also helping to provide initiating forces to star formation. The gas and dust that give the Pacman nebula it shape are illuminated by several high mass stars in the open cluster IC 1590. Although IC 1590 contains several hundred stars, it is the massive Type O stars that help shape the dark nebula that forms the mouth of the Pacman feature. Additionally, the ultraviolet radiation from the cluster helps shape the perimeter trunk shaped dust clouds on the left side of my image. These areas are thought to be star forming regions. Also present in the region are several Bok globules in the central area of the nebula. Bok globules are dense areas of dust and gas that are thought to be active star forming regions. It was only recently that near IR images found star formation inside some of these globules. This was previously impossible to determine using visual means because the regions were too dense for optical study.

NGC 281, Pacman Nebula, IC 1590

NGC 281 Pacman Nebula LRGB Version

Telescope: Takahashi TOA-130
Camera: QSI 683
Mount: AP 1100
Exposures: L 20×600 Bin 1 RGB 20×300 Bin 2

NGC 281, Pacman Nebula, IC 1590

NGC 281 Pacman Nebula LRHaGB Version

Telescope: Takahashi TOA-130
Camera: QSI 683
Mount: AP 1100
Exposures: L 20×600 Bin 1 RGB 20×300 Bin 2 Ha 20×900 Bin 1

NGC 7380 The Wizard Nebula

NGC 7380, Wizard Nebula, SH2-142

NGC 7380 L+SHO

Distance: 7,200 Light Years
Magnitude: 7.2
Size: 25 Arc-minutes
Age: Approx. 4 million years
Telescope: Takahashi TOA-130
Camera: QSI 683
Mount: AP 1100
Exposures: L 20×600 Bin 1, SII 25×900, Ha 25×900, OIII 25×900

NGC 7380, The Wizard Nebula, is an open cluster surrounded by the emission nebula from which it formed. NGC 7380 is in the constellation Cepheus and contains an eclipsing binary star known as HD 215835. HD 215835 is thought to be the primary illumination source of the nebula and is dead center in my image. It is rather unimposing and doesn’t appear bright enough to be a source star. The cluster and surrounding nebula is part of the much larger Cep OB1 Association located in the Perseus arm of the galaxy. The cluster is not that large at 3-5 arc minutes and is set against a deep star field behind large amounts of dust. This complicates distance calculations and thus the variety of distances found for this object.

[A KINEMATIC AND PHOTOMETRIC STUDY OF THE GALACTIC YOUNG STAR CLUSTER NGC 7380, 2011]

NGC 7380, Wizard Nebula, SH2-142

NGC 7380 LRGB

Telescope: Takahashi TOA-130
Camera: QSI 683
Mount: AP 1100
Exposures: L 20×600 Bin 1, RGB 20×300 Bin 2