Nebula

North America + Pelican Nebula

 

NGC 7000, North America Nebula

North America Nebula

Distance: 1,600 Light Years                                 Telescope: Televue NP101 + .8 Reducer

Magnitude: 5                                                            Camera: QSI 683

Size:  120×100 Arc-minutes                                 Mount: AP 900

Age: Not Known                                                       Exposures: SII 19×900, Ha 18×900, OIII 12×900

NGC 7000, commonly called the North America nebula, is a large emission nebula in the constellation Cygnus. Much of Cygnus has the Milky Way galaxy running through and it is a target rich environment. The North America nebula gets its name because it is shaped like the North American continent. It lies in the Orion arm of the Milky Way Galaxy. In my photo it is easy to see the shape of the Gulf of Mexico, Central America, Florida, and the entire US and Canada. The part that resembles Central America is called the Cygnus Wall and contains the largest star forming regions of the nebula. This area is rich in Hydrogen gas and dust and like most Hydrogen rich objects it appears red in LRGB imaging. I like the shape of the Cygnus Wall and how there appears to be a “wind” blowing dust away from the wall area. The dark area that forms the Gulf of Mexico is a dark dust cloud that spans past the Florida part of the nebula all the way to the Pelican Nebula. The source star that illuminates the entire nebula is located in this dark dust cloud and is down and to the right of the Florida part. This star is also responsible for illuminating the nearby Pelican Nebula. It does not appear bright in the image but that is because of the dust that obscures our view. In the same dark nebula area you can see the asterism formed by seven stars that appears to look like the Orion nebula.  Moving up the East Coast from Florida, I like the two parts of the dark nebula that would be where the Carolinas and Maine are located. They are illuminated from the side and have an eerie yellowish-orange color in narrowband. The Continental US and Canadian parts of the nebula are rich in stars and there is another wispy concentration of gas and dust in the Canadian part of the nebula.

IC 5070, IC 5067, Pelican Nebula

Pelican Nebula

Distance: 1,800 Light Years                                 Telescope: Televue NP101 + .8 Reducer

Magnitude: 8                                                            Camera: QSI 683

Size:  60×50 Arc-minutes                                      Mount: AP 900

Age: Not Known                                                      Exposures: SII 13×900, Ha 18×900, OIII 13×900

IC 5070, commonly called the Pelican Nebula, is a large emission nebula in the constellation of Cygnus. It is part of the North America nebula complex and is illuminated by the same source star. It resembles a pelican that appears to be looking at the North America Nebula. The distinct emission area along the neck and back area is known as IC 5067 and is a large star forming region. The large Dark nebula in between NGC 7000 and IC 5070 is LDN 935 and it helps shape the image of the Pelican and North America nebula. The Spitzer Space Telescope has looked in to this very dense dust cloud and found a lot of star formation. The same Spitzer Space Telescope has found 2076 YSO (Young Star Candidates)  in the entire North America+ Pelican region.

Below is a mosaic consisting of the two images above:

NGC 7000, IC 5070, IC 5067, North America Nebula, Pelican Nebula

North America + Pelican Nebula

Below is a mosaic consisting of the combined false luminance images:

NGC7000, IC 5070, IC 5067, North America Nebula, Pelican Nebula

North America + Pelican Nebula

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

NGC 2359 Thor’s Helmet

NGC 2359, Thors Helmet

NGC 2359 Thor’s Helmet HOO

Distance: 15,000 Light Years                              Telescope: Televue NP101 + .8 Reducer

Magnitude:  8                                                           Camera: QSI 683

Size:  22’x14’ Arc-minutes                                    Mount: AP 900

Age: Not Known                                                       Exposures: Ha 14×900, OIII 10×900

NGC 2359, also known as Thor’s Helmet, is an emission nebula in the constellation Canis Major. Named after the helmet of the Norse god of thunder, this nebula is more like an interstellar bubble caused by a Wolf-Rayet star in the nebula. A Wolf-Rayet star is a short lived supergiant  that emits a stellar wind that is powerful enough to sculpt odd shapes in the surrounding gas and dust. This star, HD56925, is thought to be in the last stages of evolution and about to go supernova. This object is similar in type and structure as NGC 6888, the Crescent Nebula.

[Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes] [1001 Celestial Wonders to See Before You Die, Michael E. Bakich]

False Luminance created from Ha and OIII:

NGC 2359, Thors Helmet Ha

NGC 2359 Thor’s Helmet
False Luminance

 

IC 405 The Flaming Star Nebula

IC 405, Flaming Star Nebula

IC 405 The Flaming Star Nebula

Distance: 1,500 Light Years                             Telescope: Televue NP101 + .8 Reducer

Magnitude: 9                                                        Camera: QSI 683

Size:  30×20 Arc-minutes                                 Mount: AP 900

Age: Not Known                                                  Exposures: SII 17×1200, Ha 24×1200, OIII 18×1200

IC 405, also known as the Flaming Star Nebula, is a combination of emission and reflection nebula in the constellation of Auriga. The star AE Aurigae is surrounded by gas and appears to be on fire hence the nickname. AE Aurigae is the source illumination star that is ionizing the surrounding gas creating the emission part of the nebula. The light from this same star also reflects off the surrounding dust creating the reflection part of the nebula. It is thought that this star was originally part of the Trapezium cluster inside of the Orion Nebula and it is moving away at 62 miles per second.

[WISE]

HSS Version: Ha 24×1200 + SII 17×1200:

IC 405, Flaming Star Nebula

IC 405 The Flaming Star Nebula

Ha Version: Ha 24×1200

IC 405, Flaming Star Nebula

IC 405 The Flaming Star Nebula

 

NGC 2175 The Monkey Head Nebula

NGC 2175, Monkey Head Nebula

NGC 2175 The Monkey Head Nebula

Distance: 850 Light Years                                          Telescope: Televue NP101 + .8 Reducer

Magnitude: 6.8                                                               Camera: QSI 683

Size:  45 Arc-minutes                                                   Mount: AP 900

Age: Approx. 2,000,000 Years                                   Exposures: SII 27×900 Ha 26×900, OIII 23×900

NGC 2175 is an open star cluster surrounded by nebulosity in the constellation Orion. The star cluster is located directly behind the “eye” of the monkey head. The entire nebula consists of the following star clusters:  NGC 2175, NGC 2175S, NGC 2174 and the nebula surrounding them. NGC 2175S, also known as Lund 1182, is located at the “base of the skull” of the monkey head. NGC 2174 is the star cluster located directly behind the “mouth” of the monkey head. The entire complex is commonly called the Monkey Head Nebula.

[cseligman.com, SEDS]

LRGB version with Televue NP101 (no reducer) using 12 x 300 second exposures from a Bortle 6 zone:

NGC 21751, NGC 2174, Monkey Head Nebula

NGC 2175 The Monkey Head Nebula

IC 443 The Jellyfish Nebula

IC 443, Jellfish Nebula

IC 443 The Jellyfish Nebula

Distance: 5,000 Light Years                                               Telescope: Televue NP101 + .8 Reducer

Magnitude: ???                                                                        Camera: QSI 683

Size:  55 Arc-minutes                                                            Mount: AP 900

Age: Approx. 10,000 Years                                                   Exposures: Ha 27×1200, OIII 26×1200

IC 443, also known as the Jellyfish nebula, is a supernova remnant located in the constellation Gemini. A supernova remnant is the remains of a very large star that exploded at the end of its life cycle. The explosion and resulting shock wave can energize surrounding gas and dust forming the many supernova shapes we see today. This supernova remnant contains a couple of different parts identified by their distinct shapes and chemical composition. The brighter part that shapes the right side of the head of the jellyfish contains iron, neon, silicon, and oxygen gasses and has the appearance of many filaments coming together. The left side of the head of the jellyfish consists mainly of hydrogen gas and heated dust with some filaments but has a more nebulous shape. Estimates of age vary from 3,000 to 30,000 years.

[WISE]

Ha Version:

Exposures: Ha 27×1200

IC 443, Jellyfish Nebula

IC 443 The Jellyfish Nebula

RGB Version:

Exposures: RGB 12×300:

IC 443, Jellyfish Nebula

IC 443 The Jellyfish Nebula

SHO Version:

Exposures: SII 28 x1200, Ha 27×1200, OIII 26×1200

 

IC 443, Jellyfish Nebula

IC 443 The Jellyfish Nebula

 

IC 1848 The Soul Nebula

IC 1848, Soul Nebula

IC 1848 Soul Nebula

Distance: 6,500 Light Years                                  Telescope: Televue NP101 + .8 Reducer

Magnitude: 6.5                                                         Camera: QSI 683

Size: 110×80 Arc Minutes                                     Mount:  AP900

Age: 1 Million Years                                                Exposure: SII 29×1200, Ha 28×1200, OIII 29×1200

IC 1848, commonly called the Soul Nebula, is a star cluster surrounded by emission nebula SH2-199. It is located in the Perseus arm of our galaxy in the constellation of Cassiopeia. The ultraviolet radiation and wind from the young hot stars in the cluster are blasting away the nebula dust cloud giving the nebula its shape. The parts of the dust cloud that are denser form the perimeter structure of the Soul nebula and the less dense areas form the inner structure. In the denser parts of the nebula there are several pillars of compressed gas and dust where star formation is occurring. There are also several other smaller open clusters that have formed in the outer perimeter. IC1848 and the other smaller clusters in this area are all part of the CAS OB6 association.

IC 1871 is the small fan shaped emission nebula to the left of the Soul nebula. It appears that there is a dust cloud nearly splitting the nebula in two.

[WISE]

IC 1848, Soul Nebula

IC 1848 Soul Nebula

Rosette Nebula

NGC 2237, NGC 2238, NGC 2239, NGC 2246

Rosette Nebula

Distance: 5,000 Light Years                                 Telescope: Televue NP101 + .8 Reducer

Magnitude: 4.8 Central Cluster                         Camera: QSI 683

Size: 90×90 Arc Minutes                                       Mount:  AP900

Age: 4 Million Years                                               Exposure: SII 21×900, Ha 24×900, OIII 18×900

The Rosette nebula is a large emission nebula in the constellation Monoceros. It consists of several star clusters with surrounding emission nebula designated as NGC 2237, 2238, 2239, and 2246 all surrounding the central open star cluster NGC 2244. The central star cluster is very young and was formed from the gas surrounding the cluster. This cluster is also responsible for illuminating the surrounding gas that forms the Rosette nebula. The cluster contains Type O and B stars which are very large and very hot and the ultraviolet radiation from these forms the “hole” in the center of the nebula by blasting away the less dense gas.

Star formation is still occurring in this region as other small clusters (NGC 2238,2239) have been detected in the surrounding gas areas of the nebula.

[Chandra, Wise]

Below is an LRGB image from my home observatory in a light polluted Bortle 6 zone:

Rosette Nebula, NGC 2237, NGC 2238, NGC 2239

Rosette Nebula

Distance: 5,000 Light Years                                 Telescope: Televue NP101 + .8 Reducer

Magnitude: 4.8 Central Cluster                         Camera: QSI 683

Size: 90×90 Arc Minutes                                       Mount:  AP900

Age: 4 Million Years                                               Exposure: LRGB 12×300

 

Horse Head + Flame Nebula

Horse Head Nebula, Flame Nebula

Horse Head + Flame Nebula

Distance: 1,500 Light Years                       Telescope: Televue NP101 + Televue .8 Reducer

Magnitude: Not Known                              Camera: QSI 683

Size:  H. Head 8’x6’ Flame 30’x30’         Mount: AP 900

Age: Not Known                                            Exposures: L 14×300, R 10×300, G 13×300 B 12×300

Every winter I always try to shoot two objects, M42 and the Horse Head + Flame Nebula. Both objects are perfect targets for both beginners and seasoned imagers as they are large, bright, and full of color. Here is my yearly attempt of the Horse Head + Flame nebula from my light polluted Bortle 6 home observatory. I went for two different looks, short exposure LRGB as shown above and long exposure Hydrogen Alpha as shown below.

The Horse Head Nebula is a dark nebula in the constellation Orion and you can easily see why it gets its name. Star formation has been verified inside of the Horse Head with infrared imaging. The dark nebula which forms the Horse Head stands out against the back drop of emission nebula IC 434. The curtain like effect seen in IC 434 is probably caused by a magnetic field radiating out from the Horse Head area. Just below and to the left is the bluish reflection nebula NGC 2023. Below that is a smaller reflection nebula IC 435.

The Flame nebula is an emission nebula to the left of the Horse Head nebula as shown in my image. Alnitak, the bright star in the image, is the illumination source for the Flame nebula. Active star formation is occurring in the Flame nebula and a very young star cluster has been detected inside using near infrared imaging. Moving away from the tip of the Flame is reflection nebula IC 432. Just above that is reflection nebula  IC 431.

[NOAO, Caltech Astronomy]

Below is a Hydrogen Alpha image captured from my house in the nights following the LRGB image. Here is the capture info:

Telescope: Televue NP101 + Televue .8 Reducer

Camera: QSI 683

Mount: AP 900

Exposures: Ha 22×900 seconds

Horse Head nebula, Flame nebula,

Horse Head + Flame Nebula

 

M42 The Orion Nebula

M42, Messier 42, Running Man Nebula, Orion Nebula

M42 Orion Nebula

Distance: 1,600 Light Years                        Telescope: Televue NP101 + Televue .8 Reducer

Magnitude: 4.0                                               Camera: QSI 683

Size:  85 x 60 Arc-minutes                          Mount: AP 900

Age: Approx. 30,000 Years                         Exposures: L 15×300, R 13×300, G 13×300 B 14×300

Exposures: L16x30, R16x30, G 16×30 B 16×30

I have been imaging for about 2 years now and I find myself returning to this target every year. It was one of the first images I ever captured and even through an ETX-125 with a DSLR I was stunned by the results. The following year I used my Televue NP101 with an SBIG 8300C and achieved even better results. This year I used my Televue NP101 with a Televue .8 reducer because I wanted M43 in the field of view. I captured the above LRGB image from my house in a Bortle 6 zone with no LP filter.

M42 is an emission and reflection nebula in the constellation of Orion. It is relatively bright and can be seen without any binoculars or telescope even from light polluted areas. Orion is one of the more easily recognizable constellations in the Northern hemisphere with M42 located just below the belt of Orion in what would be the sword region. M42 is illuminated from a star cluster known as the trapezium and these stars are very young and hot which causes the very thin layer of gas in the area to glow brightly. The entire region around M42 is part of the Orion Molecular Cloud 1 which an active star forming region. Star formation has been seen in various stages along with protoplanetary disks which are disks that are in the earliest stages of planet formation.

Just above M42 is another nebula known as M43. Look closely and you can see what appears to be a person running and hence the knick name, the Running Man nebula. M43 is another star forming region and has its own star cluster providing illumination.

[Wikipedia, SEDS]

Below is a Hydrogen Alpha image captured from my house in the nights following the LRGB image. Here is the capture info:

Telescope: Televue NP101 + Televue .8 Reducer

Camera: QSI 683

Mount: AP 900

Exposures: Ha 40×900 seconds + Ha 16×5 seconds + Ha 16×10 seconds + Ha 16×30 seconds

 

M42 Ha, M43 Ha,

M42 Ha + M43 Ha

IC 1805 The Heart Nebula

IC 1805, Heart Nebula

IC 1805 Heart Nebula

Distance: 7,500 Light Years                                 Telescope: Televue NP101 + .8 Reducer

Magnitude: 6.5                                                         Camera: QSI 683

Size: 140×110 Arc Minutes                                   Mount:  AP900

Age: 7 Million Years                                                Exposure: SII 23×1200, Ha 24×1200, OIII 24×1200

IC 1805, commonly known as the Heart Nebula is a star cluster that illuminates the large emission nebula SH2-190 in the constellation Cassiopeia. This cluster resides in the Perseus arm of our galaxy and the entire area is part of the Cass OB6 association. An OB association is a grouping of type O and type B stars which are massive and very hot young stars. IC 1805 is the star cluster in the center area of the image and is the source of illumination for the SH2-190 nebula. The entire nebula is very large at 140 x 110 arc minutes and I could not fit the entire object in my field of view. This cluster contains many O class stars and also one of the largest stars in our galaxy, HD 15570.

The lower right of the image shows IC 1795 and just below that is NGC 896. IC 1795, aka the Fishhead nebula, is a bright emission nebula that conceals several very young hot stars. The source stars are not visible probably because they are concealed by dust. NGC 896 is the brightest nebula in the lower right of my image and is also an emission nebula.

[Galaxy Map, Anne’s Astronomy News]

IC 1805, Heart Nebula

IC 1805 Heart Nebula